Saturday, March 14, 2020

Psychoanalysis of Psychology essays

Psychoanalysis of Psychology essays When most people think of the word psychology, they envision a person with a mental disorder or a therapist who treats such people. Actually, psychology, as a social scientific discipline, is the study of human thoughts, behaviors, beliefs, or emotional feelings. There are many different approaches to the study of psychology. Such approaches include Behaviorism, Cognitive Psychology, Social psychology, and Humanistic Psychology, but most focused on is Psychoanalytic Psychology, being popularized by Sigmund Freud. It is within this subdiscipline that psychologist study many of the aforementioned human characteristics. Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, also founder of psychoanalysis, may be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age. Psychoanalysis is a high influential method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as depth psychology. His creation of psychoanalysis was at one time a theory of the human psyche, a therapy for the relief of its ills, and an optic for the interpretation of culture and society. The psychoanalytic movement originated in the clinical observations and formulations of the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, who coined the term. In the 1980s, Freud was associated with another Viennese, Josef Breuer, in the studies of neurotic patients under hypnosis. Freud and Breuer observed that, when the study of patients ideas and impulses were brought into consciousness during the hypnotic state, the patients showed improvement. Most of his patients talk freely without being under hypnosis, Freud evolved the technique of free association of ideas. The patient was encouraged to say anything that came to mind, without regard to its assumed relevancy. Freud concluded that certain painful experiences were repressed, or held back from conscious awareness. Fr...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Sexual Harassment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sexual Harassment - Research Paper Example 222). Shifting paradigm of globalization and liberalization in the society has increased the women’s participation in the work force to contribute to family income. Women are then endangered to sexual harassment which is, perhaps, as old as the very existence of women and this is one of those problems which discourage them in taking active part in economic and social development of the society (Naveed et al. 222). The increasing cases of sexual harassment today also increased the awareness of the society, thus, more and more women came out to make legal cases against their harassers. What are the factors that affect or determine sexual harassment? One of the known factors that determine sexual harassment would be that of gender. Research has shown that a person’s gender impacts his or her perceptions of sexual harassment. Moreover, women are often more sensitive than men to what constitutes sexual harassment and they often judge the same behavior to be more serious (Fiedler and Blanco 276). So, what was offensive to a woman may not be that of a deal to a man and they usually do not file a case as compared to that of women. In addition to this, culture was also identified as a factor. Different countries have different cultural takes on sexual harassment and, therefore, would have different laws about it. Perceptions on what constitutes sexual harassment vary among and within societies; somehow they depend on how people are socialized within that society, the existence of gender stereotypes, and set notions and hierarchies that may exist in the workplace. And it is because of these reasons that make it hard to compile a list of harassing conduct that should be prohibited. Some acts are easily identified as harassment, like kissing, fondling and physical contact with genital areas, while many other kinds of verbal, non-verbal, physical conduct may not (AWARE 11). The victims

Monday, February 10, 2020

The legal, ethical and professional aspects of record keeping relating Essay

The legal, ethical and professional aspects of record keeping relating it to team working in healthcare - Essay Example The poor quality and clarity of nursing records was marked by Susan Lowson, the advisor to the Health Service Ombudsman, during The NSG conference "Information and Litigation in Healthcare" (on 11th June 2003) at Kettering General Hospital Post Graduate Medical Centre. Therefore, there is a little work to be done in the field of record quality improvement. The detailed description of a patient's case history, condition and treatment help the members of the inter-professional health care team to communicate and cooperate. This may help when the patient receives the treatment from different specialists and the important information, such as blood group, allergic reactions, specific no compatible prescribed medicines etc. should be reported to every doctor. The records are vital in doctor-nurse cooperation as they help a nurse to follow the doctor's prescriptions and a doctor to control the smallest changes in the patient's condition without keeping him under close observation as in case of long, or life-long disease when the patient receives regular nurse care and one-day-per-month doctor's examination. Good record should be written in a clear and accurate way (intended for a particular type of the record) to present the accurate account of treatment and care planning and delivery, and the record keeper should therefore follow special rules and recommendations of the authoritative organisations. Clear and consecutive records of a patient's condition help to detect problems rather than scrappy, incomplete, and inconsequent notes.Rigorous, detailed description of case history, the changes in patient's condition, medical conclusions, recommendations, and prescriptions help not only provide the successful treatment but also to protect the rights of a doctor or a patient in case of litigation. Thus, a high level of record keeping provides patients' welfare. Good medical record keeping helps to provide continuity of care. Continuity of care is an important component of medical service. Continuity is not an attribute of providers or organisations, it is rather the way individual patients experience integration of services and coordination. Therefore, continuity of care is a significant characteristic of medical care level. According to Guidelines for Record-keeping (2005, p.7), the Audit Commission (1995) found patients were suffering as a result of poor communication between professionals, even within the same area of practice and/or ward/base. The reason for that was that records were frequently treated as the personal property of a practitioner instead of as a corporate asset to promote quality care. The Trust is committed to promoting integrated patient records to support safe and effective care. It is strongly recommended, that where possible, practitioners should use or develop records that other professionals and the patient/carer/relatives are able to use to promote continuous effective care for the patient. An example of how and where this system of integrated record keeping works is the personal child health

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Forensic Psychology Essay Example for Free

Forensic Psychology Essay 1.How often is the insanity defense used and how successful is it? I would like to answer this question, with the presentation of my opinion and the performed research. It is within my opinion, that the insanity defense is used over excessively and is taking part in almost every defense to any crime. Offenders seem to have the knowledge to the use of this defense and will often provide a plea to guilty by insanity or temporary insanity, within the faith, to receive a reduced sentence. While insanity has to be a proven fact and a psychologist has to conduct a variety of tests to confirm the offender is suffering from a mental incompetence or insanity, most offenders have the ability to mislead or deceive psychologists to receive the evaluation they seek. Such action, if discovered, would actually prove the sanity of such offenders, but in most cases, it cannot be ascertained. The success of such defense is, within my view, very effective. The performed research is revealing a different answer. According to the St. Joseph News Press (2007), it has stated the opposite to my opinion. This article within a study of the national mental health institute claim’s; â€Å"the insanity defense plea is used in less than one (1) percent of criminal cases in the United States and less than a quarter of those pleas are successful†. Retrieved from; St. Joseph News Press (2007). With these opinions and views in combination, one would have to conduct further studies on this subject, to establish the correct answer. Everyone has different sentiments, within the use of the insanity defense and the successfulness of such validation. 2. Identify and discuss the major criticisms of the insanity defense. It is my belive,the major criticism of the insanity defense could be the establishment of prove to the claim of insanity. More often, offenders will try to make use of this defense for the hope of receiving a reduced sentence or the sentence to receive institutional care. According to my research, there are three (3) major criticisms within the insanity defense. The Insanity defense is mentioned as confusing to the psychiatric and legal concept. Furthermore, it is explained that the word â€Å"insane† is more of a legal word, then a medical term, and therefor to prove a person or a criminal insane, one must find the mental condition, of a criminal, severely impaired to the point of losing one’s free will. A psychiatrist may be or may not able to determine such illness, and a jury’s decision solely based on a psychiatrists’ opinion may be grounded on unreliable evidence. Retrieved from; Wests Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2 (2008). 2. This criticism is on the moral basis and the consequences. This section suggests that the crime is of more importance, then the moral imperatives. It also addresses the way a criminal, who does plea insanity, should be trialed and punished for the crime. It is suggested, that the criminal should be convicted and the mental illness should be taken in consideration at the time of sentencing. If this method would be used by the court, it would allow the judge to determine the length of imprisonment, within a hospital prison, and the defendant would have to provide prove of improvement to the once dangerous behavior. Retrieved from; Wests Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2 (2008). 3. This last criticism, is turned to the rich and wealthy criminals, who make use of the insanity plea. It is argued; â€Å"only wealthy defendant have the ability to retain a high-priced psychiatrist, who may be able to declare the defendant insane with the performed examination†. It also is believed, people who have less monetary funds and depend on the defense of a public defender, will not receive the same quality of defense, and they are also unable to receive the same value within the insanity exam. Such critic is based on the suggestion, that the insanity defense should be eliminated. Retrieved from; Wests Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2 (2008). 3. When a mentally ill person is convicted and incarcerated, what are some of the difficulties in providing appropriate psychological treatment for these offenders? The difficulties in providing appropriate care, to a incarcerated mentally ill person, would stand to the inappropriate care and knowledge of the staff or facility personnel, to the condition of the mentally ill. A prison or jail is not equipped nor can such establishment provide the correct treatment to the mentally ill. To take in consideration the staff and the special medical treatment such person would require, every day, while in such confinement. But the alternative to this problem is stated in: Wrightsman’s Psychology and the Legal System, 6e,(2011) in which it is proposed; â€Å"When defendants are found incompetent to stand trial, they can be committed for a period of treatment designed to restore their competence†. And also; â€Å"for dealing with the unrestorably incompetent criminal defendant include her or his waiving the right to be found incompetent to proceed to trial and using a special form of commitment for incompetent defendants who are judged at a provisional trial to be guilty of the crimes with which they are chargedâ€Å". Retrieved from; Wrightsman’s Psychology and the Legal System, 6e, pg; 249 (2011). It is my believe, the above suggested method, would be the better approach to the incarceration of incompetent or the mentally ill offenders.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Facundo or Civilization and Barbarism by Domingo R. Sarmiento Essay

Facundo or Civilization and Barbarism by Domingo R. Sarmiento "Facundo or, Civilization and Barbarism," by Domingo F. Sarmiento is a book which talks about the many topics of government and political situations in which Argentina was involved. Mary Mann is the translator of the book and the introduction is by Ilan Stavans. The time period the story takes place in is the nineteenth century, but the book was written in 1845. The geographic areas in which the events take place are Argentina, Chile, and most of the southernmost part of South America, such as Uruguay and Paraguay. To add to the setting, the book talks about the terrain, which includes the Andes Mountains, the plains, and the forest. The principal characters in the book are Domingo F. Sarmiento, Juan Facundo Quiroga, a caudillo, and Argentina's dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas. Sarmiento's main points for writing this book were to discredit the caudillos and Rosas. Also, to show the truth about how things were in Argentina. When taking a look at this book, a person must take a look at the society and politics of the area to see how these things go hand in hand in Argentina. First of all, Rosas was the presidential dictator at the time and had the reputation of a tyrant. The Inhabitants of the land where mostly Spanish, Indian natives. Most of Argentina’s land was filled with deserted areas due to the low population, and the fact that not many people lived in Argentina's vast mountains and plain areas. This vast land was so large, that most governments could not control it, and criminals could basically do, as they wanted. Most of these criminals, gauchos, barbarians, or call them what you will overran these plains and mountains. It was the behavio... ...n good. Just like that of Facundo, when he took over Argentina and implemented his own governing and caused chaos. Both of these gauchos show you that they just strive to do what they want for themselves to make them happy and not the people of nation. The final comparisons is how one can see the liberal ideas of Sarmiento fighting against the more conservative ideas of the gaucho which were going against the civilization in Argentina. For example, Sarmiento wants to end the dictatorship and caudilloism, for these two held down the people’s individual rights and caused obstacles to the advance of civilization. The leaders in the dictatorship and caudilloism try to retain their own ideas and force them on everyone, not allowing for freedom of ideas or rights. In the end Sarmiento wins over the gauchos in Argentina and causes an advance in Argentina’s civilization.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Crime and Order Maintenance in Celtic and Roman Britain

Cells were stripped of Civil rights, practicing a profession unable to leave ribald territory loss of status within the community. Today we have electronic tagging to keep a person within a confined space, sometime people are given community sentence which helps redeem themselves 2. * People in Roman Times were tried before a Governor for crimes as the same as a judge in modern day * They were given prison sentences to deter them for refunding by instilling fear in them, this happens today with both fine and Jail sentences. * People were condemned to the mines to work.Again in modern day times this could be seen as a harsher community service. Marc McFadden HU0022914 Diploma in Criminal Psychology â€Å"The punishment of present day offenders has elements of the Celtic and Roman approaches. † When we look at how law and punishment is upheld today in Britain we can go back thousands of years into our history to see some similarities in Celtic and Roman times. There society. The re were different levels of kinship within the community, the lowest being a person who had infringed on the law. Infractions would result in fines.As there were no prisons or police force during this time, the responsibility to punish an offender was stowed upon the Kin and extended family. If they were of modest status, a guarantor would be set in place to ensure the fine was paid. This relates in today's punishment system as a bail. If the offender was unable to pay the fine then the guarantor was eligible to seize property from the offender. If someone were of lower class, unable to obtain a guarantor or pay the fine they would suffer a loss of civil rights, the right to practice a profession or possibly be excluded from religious rites.In modern society a prison sentence removes these same rites. The threat of isolation and loss of status was an important tool in keeping people within the law. Britain was invaded by Rome in DAD and on gaining control and power it was initially content to utilize the Cells peacekeeping arrangements. Surrounding free states and British countryside kept their own laws albeit they didn't conflict with the laws of Rome. Julius Gorilla became Governor in DAD chief Justice for both civil and criminal matters.He would gain advantage over Britons by using terror in order to stop crime. He would travel the province holding session courts as well as in the capital. Listening to both citizens and Roman citizens should they wish to be tried in Rome This is similar with the likes of our Court system today. The Biggest change in comparison to The Cells way of punishment is that Roman Britain had Capital punishment where only the Governor could give such a sentence as well as the condemnation to the mines.By now there were men in the form of police, Jailers and executioners. There methods were viewed as brutal ranging from flogging, imprisonment, slavery in the mines and even death by crucifixion, however they were there for the one reas on to instill fear that people would not offend and if they did the repercussions would deter them against it a second time. Julius successfully maintained order for the 7 years he held the post. Up until the 3rd century Britain had two different law codes, native and Roman.However by DADA with an invasion to Gaul by the Germans forced General Constantine Ill out of power and the expulsion of all reaming Roman administrators in Britain. Britons had seized power of the province and wrote to the Emperor Honoring asking for legal authority for their actions and sought independence from the Emperor. In conclusion although there have been many changes to our Justice system throughout time, many of the key elements remain from both Celtic and Roman Britain.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Do Bees Die After Stinging

According to folklore, a bee can only sting you once, and then  it dies. ​But is that true? Heres an examination of the science behind bee stings, what to do if you are stung, and how to avoid stings. Most Bees Can Sting Again Bee stings are common and painful, but they are rarely deadly. Fatalities occur each year to 0.03-0.48 people per 1 million, making the probability of dying from a sting by hornets, wasps, or bees about the same as being struck by lightning. Bee stings typically result in brief, localized, limited inflammation and pain around the site. If you have ever been stung by a bee, you may have taken some satisfaction in believing the bee was on a suicide mission when it stung you. But do bees die after stinging someone? The answer depends on the bee. Honey bees die after they sting, but other bees, hornets, and wasps can sting you and live to sting another day—and another victim. Purpose of Venom The purpose of the bees stinger element, called the ovipositor, is to lay eggs in largely unwilling invertebrate hosts. Venom secretions are intended to temporarily or permanently paralyze the host. Among honeybees (Apis genera) and bumble bees (Bombus), only the queen lays eggs; other female bees use their ovipositors as defensive weapons against other insects and people. But honeycombs, where honey bee larvae are deposited and develop, are often coated with bee venom. Research has revealed that antimicrobial elements in honey bee venom provide newborn bees with protection from diseases due to the venom bathing they receive while in the larval stage. How Stings Work A sting occurs when a female bee or wasp lands  on your skin and uses her ovipositor against you. During the sting, the bee pumps venom into you from attached venom sacs through the needle-like portion of the sting apparatus called the stylus. The stylus is situated between two lancets with barbs. When a bee or wasp stings you, the lancets become embedded in your skin. As they alternately push and pull the stylus in your flesh, the venom sacs pump venom into your body. In most bees, including  native solitary bees and the social bumblebees, the lancets are fairly smooth. They have tiny barbs, which help the bee grab and hold the victims flesh when it stings, but the barbs are easily retractable so the bee can withdraw its stinger. The same is true for wasps. Most bees and wasps can sting you, pull out the stinger, and fly off before you can yell Ouch! So solitary bees, bumblebees, and wasps do not die when they sting you. Why Honey Bees Die After Stinging In honey bee workers, the stinger has fairly large, backward-facing barbs on the lancets. When the worker bee stings you, these barbs dig into your flesh, making it impossible for the bee to pull its stinger back out. As the bee flies off, the entire stinging apparatus—venom sacs, lancets, and stylus—is pulled from the bees abdomen and left in your skin. The honey bee dies as a result of this abdominal rupture. Because honey bees live in large, social colonies, the group can afford to sacrifice a few members in defense of their hive. What to Do for a Honey Bee Sting If you get stung by a honey bee, remove the stinger as quickly as possible. Even detached from the bee, those venom sacs will continue to pump venom into you: more venom equals more pain. Traditional sources say you should fetch something flat and stiff, like a credit card, to scrape the stinger off rather than pinching the stinger to remove it. However, unless you happen to be holding a credit card at the time of the sting, its better to get it out of your skin quickly. If that takes a pinch, pinch away. Avoiding Bee Stings The best course of action is to avoid getting stung by bees. If youre outside, dont wear scented lotions or applications (soaps, hairsprays, oils). Dont wear brightly colored clothing, and by all means, dont bring along a can of sweet soda or juice. Wear a hat and long pants to avoid looking like a furry predator. If a bee comes near you, stay calm; dont swat at it or flail your hands in the air. If it lands on you, gently blow on it to make it fly away. Remember, bees dont sting for fun. They do so only when they feel threatened or are defending their nests. In most cases, bees will choose flight over fight. Sources Baracchi, David; Francese, Simona; and Turillazzi, Stefano. Beyond the Antipredatory Defence: Honey Bee Venom Function as a Component of Social Immunity. Toxicon.Moreau, Sà ©bastien J. M. It Stings a Bit but It Cleans Well†: Venoms of Hymenoptera and Their Antimicrobial Potential. Journal of Insect Physiology.Visscher, P. Kirk; Vetter, Richard S.; and Camazine, Scott. Removing Bee Stings. The Lancet.Bee Stings, University of Illinois  Department of Entomology.